Monday, December 20, 2010

Tips to reduce insomnia

There are some simple ways to reduce insomnia disorders

1. Do exercise regularly. several studies have shown that regular exercise can help people experiencing problems with sleep. Exercise should be done in the morning and not a few minutes before bedtime. With exercise, a more optimal health so the body can fight stress better.
2. Avoid eating and drinking too much before bedtime. Foods that too much will cause the stomach to be uncomfortable, while drinking too much will cause frequent backward to urinate.
3. Sleep in a comfortable environment. At bedtime, turn off the lights, turn off the things that make noise, make sure you are comfortable with the temperature of the room to sleep. Keep your clock from view because it can create anxiety because they can not sleep while the clock more soluble.

4. Reduce consumption of drinks that are stimulants or who makes you awake, such as tea, coffee, alcohol and cigarettes. This drink will cause you to wake up which of course is not required if you want to sleep.
5. Eating - a little snack containing carbohydrate before bed, if available, add a glass of warm milk.
6. Bathe with warm water 30 minutes or one hour before bedtime. Warm water will cause sedation or stimulate sleep. It also reduces body tension.
7. Stop watching TV, reading books, at least an hour before bedtime.
8. Use the bed only for sleeping. This will help the body adjust to the environment in which to sleep. While lying in bed, then there will be a stimulus to sleep.
9. Doing regular relaxation activities. Listening to music, practicing breathing and meditation will help slow down the process that occurs in the body so that your body becomes more relaxed. This situation will make it easier to sleep.
10. Clear your mind. Eliminate all fears that descend mind. One way to do this is to write down all ideas through the media blogs
11. Sleep and wake up in a regular time period every day. Sleep time of chaos will further disrupt sleep.
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Insomnia is a symptom of sleep disorders in the form of recurrent difficulties to sleep or maintaining sleep, although there is a chance for it. The symptoms are typically followed by functional impairment while awake.
Insomnia is often caused by an illness or due to psychological problems. This is usually exacerbated by unhealthy behaviors, such as irregular hours of sleep, frequent late nights and caffeine use. In this case, medical or psychological assistance will be required. One of psychological therapy that effectively deal with insomnia is cognitive therapy. In such therapy, a patient is taught to improve sleep habits and eliminate counter-productive assumptions about sleep.

Many insomniacs dependent on sleeping pills and other sedative substances to be rested. All sedative drugs have the potential to cause psychological dependence form of assumption that they can not sleep without the drug.

Insomnia Causes

Causes of sleep disorders are usually divided into 3 conditions, ie, medical conditions, psychiatric conditions and environmental conditions.

Some medical conditions that can cause sleep disorders are:
1. Disturbances in the heart such as heart failure and ischemia in coronary artery
2. Stroke, degenerative conditions, dementia, sleep disorders due to CNS disorders
3. Hypothyroidism, menopause, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and hipogonadism
4. Obstructive pulmonary disorders, asthma, pickwikian syndrome
5. Disease vomit gastric fluids
6. Disturbances in the blood
7. The use of drugs such as decongestants, koritokosteroid, and bronchodilators
8. Other conditions such as fever, pain and infection

Some psychological condition that can that can cause sleep disorders.
1. Depression can cause disturbances in REM (rapid eye movement)
2. Post Trauma Syndrome
3. Psychotropic drugs
4. Stress
5. Tense-anxious

Some environmental conditions that can cause sleep disorders
1. Life-threatening events or events that have a high stress
2. Impaired sleep cycle due to irregular working hours (evening and morning)
3. Noisy environment, cold, or too hot

Insomnia is not a disease, but is a phenomenon which has various causes, such as emotional disorders, physical disorders and drug use.
Insomnia can affect all age groups. However, the incidence of insomnia increases with age. This may be caused by stress that often gets attacked by people who are older. In addition, women more often said to suffer from insomnia than men.
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Sunday, December 19, 2010

How To Overcome and Food for Migraine Suffer

How to relieve pain due to migraine

1. Rest.
Due to their sensitivity to light, it is advisable to rest in a dark and quiet. Stay away from the sources and the luminous light crowd. Settle down and try to sleep.
2. Compress the head with an ice / cold water.
Compress the affected part with ice or cold water, to help constrict blood vessels.
3. Steer clear of migraine trigger factors.
4. Warm the neck.
Rest your neck bone, because the neck is one part of the body that works hard supporting the head. Fatigue in the neck can trigger head pain. During a break, try to warm the neck or give a little gentle massage.

5. Drinking painkillers.
There are lots of painkillers in the form of analgesic, antipyretic and aspirin. But do not take any medication, ask for a drug that has been recommended by your doctor.

Food and Drink Recommendation For people with migraine:

1. White Water
Dehydration can cause headaches, because it decreases blood volume and blood flow affect the rhythm. Maintain body fluids by drinking at least two and a half liters of water a day.

2. Oatmeal
These foods release energy slowly, so that helps maintain blood sugar levels more stable.

3. Nuts
Just as porridge, beans also release energy slowly.

4. Ginger
Ginger can reduce discomfort in the stomach (nausea), which usually come with a headache. Drinks or ginger biscuits, can be consumed as food additives.

5. Low-fat foods
Control blood fat with low-fat foods, because it is associated with migraine. Reduce fried foods, sauces and saturated fatty foods. Meet the needs of protein from fish or poultry meat.

source :
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This disease affects more women. Migraine is a disease that attacks the brain and cause pain both physically and emotionally. Cerebral blood vessel dilation and inflammation is one of why the head ache. Although not known for certain causes, generally this disease is an inherited disease.

What can be done is to try to prevent attacks of headaches and reduce pain when the attack occurred. Sometimes the attacks are not only attacking one side of the head but to attack both sides of the head.

Before the pulse strike the head, usually the patient will experience symptoms such as seeing a blinking light or commonly referred to as dizzy, seeing dark spots, wavy, saw the object becomes smaller, sensitive to the sight and sound or tingling in hands and feet. By emotion, a sign that can be experienced as anxiety, irritability, or stress. These symptoms are not always sure because every migraine sufferer may experience symptoms differently.

Migraine Triggers

One way to avoid migraine attacks is by knowing what the cause of the attack. It is important to know the triggers that can cause migraine attacks. Avoiding the triggers means that increase the likelihood of migraine. Some triggers of migraines include:

* Changes in estrogen
There is lots of the hormone estrogen in women may trigger a migraine. Especially when the number of estogen is not stable, for example at the time before and during menstruation, during pregnancy, contraceptive use, or if you are undergoing hormone therapy.
* Stimulation of the body senses
The light is too bright, the sound is too loud, or a particular smell that was overpowering as the smell of perfume and cigarette smoke can be a trigger.
* Changes in weather
Changes in extreme weather or not stabilized and the air pressure changes can trigger migraine.
* Unusual sleep schedule
If your sleep patterns are not as usual. For example, a short period of sleep and even sleeping too long can make you experience a migraine. If you're new to travel, jet lag can also be the cause.
* Fatigue
Exercise or physical activity that is heavier than usual to increase the likelihood of migraine.
* Food and Beverage
The content contained in foods and beverages can be a trigger. Alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine or the content of caffeine found in coffee should be avoided. Mengkonsusmsi brown, old cheese, food containing MSG or preservatives is also a migraine trigger.

Trigger the one shown above are some common triggers, but no guarantee is the trigger of your migraine as migraine triggers in each of us could be different. To be able to find out what triggers your migraines, make a note of when the migraine attack, what you eat or drink, what activities are done before you experience a migraine. Note is made every time the migraine attack. By analyzing the records, are expected to know what triggers your migraines.

Prevent migraines

No doubt, one of the causes of migraine is due to the heavy thoughts. For that, try to calm your mind. Perform relaxation of mind, for example by doing your hobby, gardening, listening to music or other activities fun for you.

In addition to the mind, physically also need to receive training in order to stay in top shape, exercise regularly should be a matter that can not be forgotten. Sport is a sport which should be selected with a mild physical activity, such as walking, aerobics, or cycling.

Good sleep patterns will support health and prevent migraine attacks you. Sleep should be in sufficient time, the term of adults should sleep for 6-8 hours a day. If possible, should sleep and wake at the same time every day.

If you are currently running the hormone therapy, should discuss this with your doctor for a solution can be given. This is because migraines can be caused by changes in hormone estrogen.

Treating Migraine

The first step that can be done when the migraine attack is to try to relax and calm the mind. Sleep in a quiet and dark place while trying to relax. You can put ice that has been wrapped in cloth to be placed behind the head. Then do the gentle massage on the head.

If you are frequently attacked by migraine, we encourage you to consult a doctor to get proper treatment. In addition, the examination is also useful to know for sure if the headache you're experiencing is a migraine disease or other headaches because sometimes, other head disease showing symptoms similar to migraine. Continue to live a healthy lifestyle and avoiding migraine triggers for migraines are not approached.

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Types and Factors of Migraine

Type - type of Migraine

Migraine is divided into four groups, namely:
Common migraine
Most migraine sufferers generally suffer from migraine this group, with symptoms such as throbbing pain on one side of the head with moderate to severe intensity. If it is severe, the patient can not move because it always felt nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, sounds and smells. The pain will go away within 4 to 72 hours.
Classical Migraine
This type of migraine is generally preceded by symptoms called aura, which is visually impaired like seeing wavy lines, bright light, dark spots or can not see objects clearly.

Other aura symptoms, is a sense of tingling or numbness in the hand. Most people can not pronounce the words properly, felt numbness in the hand, shoulder, or face, or feel weak on one side of his body, or feel confused.
Patients may experience one or several kinds of symptoms, although not arise simultaneously. Symptoms generally occur 30 minutes prior to this pain, can be lost or survive until the pain in his head to attack.
Menstrual Migraine
Migraine is typically arise several days before, during or after menstruation. Migraine sufferers will know that he was feeling, dealing with her menstrual cycle. The pain is felt, could be as common or classical migraine.
Migraine Complications
This type of migraine is often accompanied by nervous system disorders, such as numbness and tingling of the skin, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, inability to move arms or legs. Neurological symptoms can persist despite the migraine had been cured.

Migraine trigger factors

- Consumption of certain foods
- Sleeping too much or lack of sleep
- Not eating
- Changes in weather or air pressure
- Stress or emotional distress
- The smell was terrible or cigarette smoke
- A very bright light or reflection of sunlight.

Migraine sufferers should be cautious in consuming the food, because there are some foods that can trigger a migraine (although depending on the sensitivity of each individual), for example:

1. Alcohol
Alcohol including diuretics or substances that cause dehydration, which can trigger migraines. Although red wine has a dual function in the opposite, because it is rich in phenolic element which is very good for the heart, but red wine can also trigger migraines.

2. Caffeine
Despite taking it helps relieve migraines, but actually it is not recommended be done for the sufferer. Because if they are addicted, less consumption of caffeine will actually trigger a migraine. When you just want to stop the migraine, one glass is enough.

3. Cheese
Although still pros and cons, but some experts say the cheese is one of the triggers of migraine. Tyramin amino acid element contained in the cheese, expected to lead to a headache because it reduces the levels of serotonin in the brain that disrupt the rhythm of blood flow.

4. Food Additives
The migraine sufferer is generally said that they are very sensitive to foods that contain MSG, Nitrite, aspartame (artificial sweetener), tetrazin and sulfite (found in alcoholic beverages and wine).

FOOD & DRINK RECOMMENDATIONS FOR people with migraine:

1. White Water
Dehydration can cause headaches, because it decreases blood volume and blood flow affect the rhythm. Maintain body fluids by drinking at least two and a half liters of water a day.

2. Oatmeal
These foods release energy slowly, so that helps maintain blood sugar levels more stable.

3. Nuts
Just as porridge, beans also release energy slowly.

4. Ginger
Ginger can reduce discomfort in the stomach (nausea), which usually come with a headache. Drinks or ginger biscuits, can be consumed as food additives.

5. Low-fat foods
Control blood fat with low-fat foods, because it is associated with migraine. Reduce fried foods, sauces and saturated fatty foods. Meet the needs of protein from fish or poultry meat.

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Friday, September 3, 2010

Bye - bye Obesity

In my previous articles, I have been reviewing ways to overcome obesity. Here, I'll add some tips so we can say goodbye to obesity, and look attractive.
It is because obesity is not only disturb the appearance but also health-threatening obesity. Do the following steps and say goodbye to overweight.

- Limit calories
Basically, in order not to our fatness "only" need to eat foods with lower calorie amount of calories burned.

- Drinking water
Usually within a day if you could spend a glass of juice, soda, or alcoholic beverages, from now replace with plain water. With this simple way you have to reduce calorie intake per day.

- Sport 15-20 minutes.
If you have problems with weight, you usually also have a problem with exercise habits. Maybe it's because you're too impose themselves. Enough exercise for 15 minutes every day will burn 100-150 calories, depending on body weight and metabolism.

- Replace snacks
Potato chips, fried foods, and other snack foods do not actually contain less calories. If you're used to snacking all day, have it replaced with a vegetable or fruit. Also stay away from sugar-rich snacks such as donuts, chocolate, or ice cream.

- Having sex
Intimate with a partner is one of physical activity not only fun, but also can burn calories. But of course you're not just doing it for three minutes, but 15 minutes. If done every day, the number of calories burned to reach 150.

- Healthy Breakfast
Skipping breakfast can actually make the body weak and very hungry at noon. Choose a healthy breakfast, such as vegetable sandwich or oatmeal.

- Reduce the butter
Reduce the habit of buttering bread or other foods because you can reduce 200-300 calories per day.

- Eat slowly
Enjoy each mouthful and chew food slowly so you feel full faster. If you are still tempted to spend a portion of food again, wait 20 minutes, usually it will go away hungry.
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How to Overcome Obesity

Having a fat body for some people is a frightening specter. This is because, obesity can lead to various diseases. So many people avoid becoming overweight, especially women.
Average women are willing to do anything to get a slim body shape, ranging from a regular diet, drink a variety of slimming drug to liposuction.
In fact, if implemented dietary and health habits, obesity can be avoided.

Here, some tips that can be done to combat obesity:
* Eliminate the habit of snacking, especially starchy and sugary foods high. Eat every three hours is allowed, provided by balancing caloric intake.
* Limit high carbohydrate foods such as rice, potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, and foods from wheat. However, this does not mean totally eliminating carbohydrates, your body still needs energy from carbohydrates to break down food substances during the process of metabolism.
* Reduce food from protein sources such as fish, tofu, tempeh, and meat.
* Discipline in regulating diet and exercise. Enter fibrous foods such as vegetables and fruits. Vegetables make us easy to fill, durable and low in calories.
* Eat fruit that does not contain much carbohydrate but a lot of water, such as papaya, starfruit, watermelon, guava and apples are highly recommended. In particular, interrupted mealtimes.
* Reduce the consumption of sweet fruits such as bananas, melons, sapodilla, grapes and mango. These fruits contain fructose which will be a lot of glucose in the blood.
* Lots of fruit consumption
* Drink plenty of water, because a lot of drinking can overcome hunger.
* When exercising, take time to warm up for half an hour to an hour. all this will make the weight remained stable and appeared fit

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Thursday, September 2, 2010

Exotic Water Three Pain (Rejenu)

Kudus Town has a variety of attractions that can be enjoyed by both locals and foreign tourists. Some existing attractions such as nature tourism, educational and religious. One of the most popular attractions in the Kudus City is the Water Three Pain (Air Tiga Rasa).
This tourist attraction is located in the mountains of Muria, about 7 km above Monthel waterfall tourism . Along the road leading to this very interesting sights. We can enjoy the cool and fresh air for both sides of the road because there are many plants and trees that shade. In addition, there is also a stream that flows into Monthel waterfall tourism, where the water is still clear and fresh.

Although the road to these places is climb, but we will not feel tired because of the freshness of air there. Besides we can walk through the path to get there, we can also use the motorbike taxi. If we use a motorcycle taxi service, we will pass the direction of Japan and then climbed a path that was paved by people around the site. So we do not take a long time from the bus parking lot in Colo. to arrive at the Three Pain Water (Air Tiga Rasa) attractions. We only took about 10 minutes by bike.
when we got there, we can see a forest that is still lush with big trees, so it can add a cool atmosphere around it. We also enjoy the sound of birds chirping which is still natural.
To quench your thirst after a little tiring journey, we can enjoy the water in three wells with different taste in all three wells. There's a sprite taste, salt and natural.
Beside we enjoy drinking the tasty water there, we also can enjoy special food there that is well-known as Pecel Pakis. We can meet it in the stalls beside the road towards Pain Three water wells (Sumur Air Tiga Rasa).
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Is Obesity Difficult to Pregnant?

Being overweight can also be considered to be one cause of difficult pregnancies.
Because there is excess fatty tissue that can trigger over-production of the hormone estrogen, a hormone that is formed to result in less or unbalanced, and will interfere with ovulatory cycles. Can be seen from irregular menstrual cycles do not occur.
The study says 30-47% of women with excess weight will experience irregular menstrual cycles. Being overweight also increases the risk of miscarriage in pregnancy.

But that does not mean women with excess body weight can not be pregnant.
The first tips that can be done to help speed up the pregnancy is to lose weight and lifestyle changes. Limit your intake of calories in a maximum of 1000-1200 kcal / day. Do sports that have a high enough intensity for 30 minutes, 3 x per day.
Studies show 50-10% reduction of body weight can increase spontaneous ovulation for the possibility of pregnancy up to 60% for women with excess weight.
Several conclusions can be drawn is that obesity can reduce fertility, either because of excessive calorie intake or because of hormones resulting from the delay pregnancy drug (pill, injection, implant contraceptives. Etc.), All of which can cause reduced fertility.
Obesity can also reduce sexual activity / sexual interest from couples.
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Preventing Child Obesity

Having a fat and plump child is dreaming of every parents. It still has a lot of assumptions that circulate in the community if a healthy child is marked by weight gain. Unfortunately, when the weight of too drastically will cause new problems for the child.
Children will feel inferior in their environment due to continue being ridiculed by his friends. Children will have difficulty doing activities that give priority to the physical. Children will also be susceptible to some diseases such as shortness of breath, and others. All that would be disturbing the child's achievement in school.

Here are some tips to prevent children becoming too fat:

1. Give children an example of how a healthy lifestyle. You will not be able to teach your children healthy habits while your own life habits random mess. As a parent, you must be a role model. Some old people there who behave well when in front of children, even though the child may know the tricks performed by their parents are. With a healthy behavior, not only do you teach your child how to live healthy, but that behavior is also useful for your own health.
2. Start early. Begin teaching children healthy lifestyle as early as possible. This habit will be easier to be taught at an early age because children have not too many options. Unfortunately, many parents have not realized this, so that some of them late teach kids to eat vegetables for example.
3. Get used to eat with children. Lately a lot of families who have left the habit of eating together. They prefer to eat his own self in a different place different. How parents can give examples of healthy foods to eat while they are separated from their children. By eating together, you as parents can monitor what is eaten by your child and can explain the usefulness of the food. You can also teach them how to eat right.
4. Encourage your child to indulge. Many parents who forbid their children too many activities with a variety of reasons. Sometimes the reason is simply based on the interests of parents, when children need a lot of motion to burn the energy stored in the body. Energy deposition in the body will cause the child to become obese. Invite your child exercise, play and activities that move the body.
5. Help children to make friends. Social will enable children spent more time to play. With a lot of play will burn more energy so that children do not become obese. Social will also enhance the socialization of our children.
6. Give an award. If your child has a healthy lifestyle, show them that you feel happy and proud. Instead, give them the punishment if your child is doing a bad habit. This will encourage healthy behavior in your child.
7. Learn to say no. Remember if you teach your children to live healthy is because you love them. Dare to say no if you feel what your child is not required in accordance with your purpose to teach them how to live healthy. Do not be too follow the will of your child.
8. Additional vitamins. Please remember that the food consumed by your child does not always contain enough nutrients they need. Therefore, give them extra vitamins and minerals. Give dosage of vitamins that they like both in terms of taste and packaging to ensure the discipline they consume.
9. Health examination. You should always be sure if your child is in good shape. If not, flee to the doctor for a medical examination. Better yet if you check your child's health on a regular basis to a family doctor and dentist. With regular checkups, you can also get advice on how to raise children properly so that your children grow up healthy.
10. Give me a challenge. If there is a chance you must give your child healthy foods that they had never before consumption. Children love a challenge. Thus, your child will have plenty of healthy food choices in life.

Hopefully helpful.

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New Way to Overcome Obesity and Diabetes

Lately, researchers have found ways to overcome obesity and diabetes, two diseases caused by eating too much sweet food, or that contain glucose. By using the brown fat from the skin to burn calories, then at least can reduce the excessive calories in the obese body.
As published in Nature Report dated July 29, the researchers publish that one way to overcome the disorder of metabolism such as obesity and diabetes a way to burn a set of calorie burning brown fat cells.
Francesco keen, a Endokrinologist at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney hospital in Bethesda, Maryland., Saying, "Network-fat chocolate comes in the forefront to address the problem of obesity because it can make burning calories"

He also said the research might reveal the possibility of activation of brown fat, but the body also may be looking for ways to compensate in order to eat more.
As known so far, brown fat is used to warm newborn infants during cold temperatures. With these findings made the researchers think that to combat obesity is by increasing the number and activity of fat storage in the body of an adult brown colored.
Preliminary studies performed on rats myoblast. Myoblast is before the muscle cells. Researchers know that a protein called PRDM16 is important to produce brown fat cells. Researcher grafting some of the living cells of rats. then brown fat cells to form clots at different injection locations, near the liver / heart of the rats. This Myoblasts divide as usual. But when researchers increased number of both proteins, the cells divided to create a functional energy burning fat cells, apart from the duplicate themselves.
"Using the brown fat to help treat obesity has been discussed for more than 30-40 years. But, usually people will be attacked. Many said it was not fat as adults, others mention the fat has no relationship to obesity and weight loss. Recent research proves, every adult person has a functional brown fat in the body, "he explained.
So, with verification by a researcher who claimed that obesity and diabetes can be overcome by using brown fat. So, no harm for you who have the disease of obesity or diabetes can use a way that has been proven by the researchers.

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Obesity and Cancer Relationship

Society in general may ask, what is the relationship of obesity with cancer? Is not that cancer patients tend to be thin? In 2001, experts concluded that colon cancer, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium, kidney, and esophagus, associated with obesity. Obesity and low physical activity causes approximately 25 to 30% of cancers such as colon cancer, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium, kidney and esophagus cancer.

Research conducted in the United States in patients over 16 years and non-Smokers, clearly shows that both men and women who are more obese at the beginning of the study (with the examination-IMT), have a higher risk of cancer. In this study, an increased risk of cancers such as kidney and uterus in women and liver cancer in men was most striking. Results from another study claimed that obesity is the number-two cause of cancer after smoking in the United States.
In the world, the increasing incidence of obesity and smoking is reduced, so that it is estimated that obesity one next decade will be the first risk factor for cancer in the United States. The results of this study was presented by the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund International, with the theme: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Now the estimated two thirds of the population in America are overweight.
Worldwide, cancer incidence increased faster than population growth. Although it is known that obesity increased the incidence of cancer, but kuantistas risk and increased risk of cancer which still needs further evaluation. The American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund International has gathered its members to evaluate the risk of cancer. The data discussed are the data from the 7000 study have been published.
Results of the review undertaken:
• Obesity significantly increases the risk of 6 Janis cancers: colon, kidney, pancreas, eosofagus, as well as endometrial and breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
• Increasing the number of pounds of body weight or excess fat increases the risk of cancer.
• Increased consumption of red meat increase cancer risk by 15%.
• Increased consumption of processed meats increase colorectal cancer risk. Associated with these results, the researchers make recommendations for the prevention of cancer (associated with weight loss):
• Try to be in the range of normal weight, (thin as possible).
• Consumption of foods derived from plants (fruits, vegetables, rice, and peas).
• Avoid red meat consumption of 18 ounces per week.
• Avoid consumption of processed meats as much as possible.
• Make physical activity as much as possible.
• Fixed meet nutritional needs through food.
• Consumption of no-calorie foods, like sweet drinks should be limited
• Restriction of alcohol consumption
• Patients who have successfully recovered from cancer should follow these recommendations. Added that obesity increases the risk of gallstone formation, and the presence of gallstones is increased risk of gallbladder cancer, which is expected to occur from supersaturasi cholesterol. Obesity affects circulating levels of hormones such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors and estrogen, which will create circumstances that promote carcinogenesis and reduces apoptosis. This stimulates the body's inflammatory response which will lead to the onset and progression of some cancers.
Several other studies showed an increased incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukemia and multiple myeloma in obese patients. Even in some reports, the relationship of obesity with cancers was expressed bermakan statistically. It is estimated that this occurs because obesity causes inflammation and pathological changes in the immune response, in which both of these factors will affect the function of lymphoid and hemapoetik cell function.
Experts say that doctors need to directly handle the excess weight found in patients, even if only seen a slight increase weight. With obese patients and overweight, doctors need to talk about diet, physical activity and sport. Every person money obese and overweight are encouraged to discuss with a doctor associated with weight and physical activity plan that will be undertaken to reduce cancer risk.
• In the future, obesity is likely to be the main cause of cancer.
• Obesity, lack of activity can increase your risk of cancer.
• Doctors need to perform preventive actions, in this case dealing with the excess weight in obese and overweight patients and discussion with patients about diet and physical activity needs to be done to reduce the risk of cancer.

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Obesity is excess weight as a result of excessive accumulation of body fat.
Everyone needs some body fat to store energy as heat insulation, shock absorber and other functions. On average women have more body fat than men [citation needed]. Normal comparison between body fat weight is approximately 25-30% in women and 18-23% in men. Women with more body fat than 30% body fat and men with more than 25% are considered obese.
Someone who has a weight 20% higher than the midpoint of the range of normal weight is considered obese.

Obesity is classified into three groups:

* Obesity mild: 20-40% overweight
* Obesity is: 41-100% overweight
* Obesity weight: excess weight> 100% (weight Obesity is found as much as 5% of the people who are obese).

Attention not only to the amount of fat is dumped, but also to the location of body fat storage. The pattern of distribution of body fat in men and women tend to differ. Women tend to accumulate fat in the hips and buttocks, thus giving the picture such as a pear. While the men usually accumulate fat around the abdomen, thus giving the picture such as apples. But it is not something absolute, sometimes in some men looked like a pear and some women look like apples, especially after menopause.
Someone buried a lot of fat in the abdomen may be more prone to various health problems associated with obesity. They have a higher risk. Pear picture is better than the picture of the apple.
To distinguish the two images, we have found a way to determine whether a person is shaped like an apple or pear, namely by calculating the ratio of waist to hips. Waist was measured at the narrowest point, while the hip was measured at the widest point; and waist size divided by hip size. A woman with a waist size of 87.5 cm and 115 cm hip size, waist-hip ratio of 0.76. Women with a ratio of waist: hip more than 0.8 or men with waist: hip more than one, say an apple-shaped.

Obesity Causes
Scientifically, obesity occurs from consuming more calories than needed by the body. Cause of the imbalance between calorie intake and burning is still unclear.
The occurrence of obesity involves several factors:

* Genetic factors. Obesity tends to run, thus might have a genetic cause. But family members not only share genes but also diet and lifestyle habits, which could push the occurrence of obesity. Often difficult to separate lifestyle factors with genetic factors. Recent research shows that the average genetic factors affecting 33% of body weight a person.
* Environmental factors. Gene is an important factor in many cases of obesity, but one's environment also play a significant role. This environment includes behavioral / lifestyle patterns (eg what to eat and how often a person ate and how its activity). A person certainly can not change their genetic pattern, but he can change the diet and activity.
* Psychological factors. What's in a person's mind can affect her eating habits. Many people reacted to his emotions by eating.

One form of emotional distress is a negative perception of self. This disruption is a serious problem for many young women who suffer from obesity, and can cause excessive awareness about kegemukannya and discomfort in social interactions.
There are two abnormal eating patterns that could be the cause of obesity is eating in a number of very much (binge) and eat at night (at night eating syndrome). Both diets are usually triggered by stress and disappointment. Binge similar to bulimia nervosa, in which a person ate in a number of very much, except that the binge this is not followed by spewing back what you've eaten. As a result a lot of calories consumed. In the syndrome, eating at night, is the reduction of appetite in the morning and followed by excessive eating, agitation and insomnia at night.

1. Health factors. Some illnesses can cause obesity, among others:

* Hypothyroidism
* Cushing's syndrome
* Prader-Willi Syndrome
* Several neurological disorders that can cause a person eats a lot

1. Drugs.

Certain drugs (eg steroids and some anti-depressants) can cause weight gain.

* Factor developments. Increasing the size or number of fat cells (or both) cause increasing amounts of fat stored in the body. Obese people, especially those who became obese in childhood, can have the fat cells up to five times more than people whose weight is normal. The number of fat cells can not be reduced, so weight loss can only be done by reducing the amount of fat within each cell.

* Physical activity. Lack of physical activity is probably one of the main causes of the increasing incidence of obesity in the middle of a prosperous society. People who are inactive need fewer calories. Someone who tend to consume foods rich in fat and not doing physical activity that is balanced, will be obese.

Symptoms of obesity

Excessive fat accumulation under the diaphragm and inside the chest wall may suppress the lungs, causing breathing problems and shortness of breath, although patients with only mild activity. Respiratory problems can occur during sleep and causes cessation of breathing for a while (sleep apneu), so at noon sufferers often feel sleepy.
Obesity can cause various orthopedic problems, including low back pain and aggravate osteoarthritis (especially in the area of the hip, knee and ankle). Sometimes also frequently found in skin disorders. A person who is obese has a body surface which is relatively more narrow than the weight, so body heat can not be disposed of in an efficient and more sweat. Often found in edema (swelling due to accumulation of fluid) in the leg and ankle.


Obesity is not only unpleasant to the eye but it is a terrible dilemma for health care. Obesity is directly harmful to one's health. Obesity increases the risk of some chronic diseases such as:

* Diabetes type 2 (arising in adolescence)
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Stroke
* Heart attack (myocardial infarction)
* Heart failure
* Cancer (certain types of cancer such as prostate cancer and colon cancer)
* Gall-bladder stones and bladder stones
* Gout and gout arthritis
* Osteoarthritis
* Sleep apneu (failure to breathe normally while asleep, have decreased levels of oxygen in the blood)
* Pickwickian syndrome (obesity accompanied by facial redness, underventilasi and drowsiness).

Measuring body fat

Not easy to measure a person's body fat. Following ways requires special equipment and conducted by trained personnel:

* Underwater weight, body weight was measured in water and then body fat is calculated based on the amount of water remaining.
* BOD POD is an egg-shaped space that has been computerized. Once a person has entered the BOD POD, the remaining amount of air used to measure body fat.
* Dexa (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), resembling bone skening. X-rays are used to determine the number and location of body fat.

Following two ways is more simple and not complicated:

* Duration of skin, skin fold thickness in several parts of the body measured by the term (a metal tool resembling a forceps).
* Bioelectric impedance analysis (analysis bioelektrik prisoners), the patient stands on a special scale and a number of harmless electrical current flowed through the body and then analyzed.

These examinations can give inaccurate results if not done by experts.


Restricted calorie intake and increasing physical activity is the most important component in weight control. Both these components are also important in maintaining weight after weight loss. Must be a change in physical activity patterns and begin to live healthier eating habits.
The first step in treating obese patients is estimating body fat and health risks by calculating BMI. Health risks associated with obesity will increase in line with the increasing number of BMI:

* Low risk: BMI <27>Obesity is a chronic condition (chronic). Obesity is often considered a temporary condition that can be resolved for several months with a strict diet. Weight control is a long term business. To be safe and effective, any weight-loss program should be directed to the long-term approach.
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Monthel Waterfall

One of natural attractions offered in Kudus District located on the slopes of Mount Muria, namely Monthel waterfall. 25-meter-high waterfall is still an area with natural tourist attraction and the Tomb of Sunan Muria Colo.
Montel waterfall tourism is one of the nearby natural attractions located in Kudus regency. This tour is located in the northern cemetery of Sunan Muria. With a gap of about 1.5 km from the guesthouse Colo, and a height of 50 m, this tour made natural tourist destination in the tourists who come to visit Kudus. Most of the visitors are those who visit the cemetery of Sunan Muria.
To reach these places we must walk through a path with a distance of about 1.5 km to cross the coffee plantations on the slopes of Mount Muria in 30 minutes. For who can't be strong to walk, can take advantage of a motorcycle taxi service is ready to deliver more quickly through a better path. You can enjoy the freshness of cold water and beautiful scenery around this waterfall. In addition, visitors also can take a bath or play in the fresh mountain spring water Muria, accompanied by the sound of birds and various other forest animals. But I think the run will be even better. In addition to healthy weight, by walking, we also can enjoy the beautiful natural panorama over toward a waterfall is Montel. Even if you are lucky we will get a bonus which is to meet with the monkeys who were natives Montel.
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Green Tea is Beneficial Drinking

Tea is one of drink that is often presented by the family for drinks after breakfast. There are several types of tea from the classic tea, green tea to tea-scented flowers. Tea is usually served with a variety of ways from a brewed, put in the pot or presented directly in the cup or glass. There are several benefits of tea, especially green tea has many benefits for both health and beauty. Here, I try to explain.

Benefits of green tea include:

1. For the health benefits of tea have been known for thousands of years ago. In scientific research, found the use of tea in pharmacology to the human body. Due to the different types of chemical compounds such as amino acids, alkaloids pure, aromatic substances and vitamins.
2. Vitamin C content in tea is higher compared with the existing content in apples, tomatoes and lime juice. While B12 size 10-20 times higher compared with those found in cereals and vegetables, and components are not easily available in other foods.
3. Tea contains an amino acid needed by the body, rich in minerals and various vitamins. A tea drinker who regularly drink tea with a dose of rational, will get a regular supply of nutrients for the body and causes the formation of natural immunity.
4. From the results of research in the Soviet Union as well as black tea green tea, serves as one of the elements that can help so as not susceptible to disease.
5. Expert researchers from the Academy of Preventife Chinnese Medicine in China, after studying 17 types of tea can be proved that tea can slow the formation of nitrosamines in the body. In addition some elements in the tea can detect tumor cell growth on some parts of the human body.

Compounds in tea and functions:
1. Catechin
* Lowers cholesterol
* Lowers blood pressure and blood sugar levels
* Anti-cancer, anti-mutant factor
* Helps prevent kidney work gallstones

2. Polyphenol / tannin
* Streamlining digestion, kills bacteria dysentery
* Has anti-oxidant function
* Dissolves fat

3. Caffeine (theobromine Theophyiline)
* Stimulates the central nervous
* Streamlining the blood circulation, helps kidney function
* Improve concentration

* Streamlining the digestion and dissolves fat
* Source of tea aroma

5. Flavanols
* Strengthens the blood vessels, has an antioxidant function

6. Fluoride (Menganese, Zinc, Potassium
* Preventing tooth decay

* Prevent and fight against influenza
* Reduce stress
* Lowers high blood pressure
* Has anti-oxidant function
* Protect your cornea and UV light (prevents cataracts)

* Preventing premature aging
* Reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke
* Prevent the formation of fat in blood vessels

9. VITAMIN B Complex
* Helps the metabolism karbohidart

* Prevent bad breath (breath is not fresh)

* Scent mouth

How to brew green tea:

* Take one tablespoon of green tea (10 grams) enter in a quart of boiling water, cover tightly and allow 50-10 minutes of new ready to drink. Enough doses for one glass of one teaspoon (2 grams).
* Create a source of TEA for families: Take it and enter the 4 tablespoons of green tea into a teapot, pour boiling two quarts of boiling water. Each will serve drinks, the mixture is: ½ cup prickly tea ½ cup hot water. In order to feel the pleasure of drinking tea, drink while warm.
* It is advisable to drink green tea every day on a regular basis three to five in accordance with the measuring cup so that the properties of green tea a lot of benefits.

Taken from:
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Wednesday, August 25, 2010

Fast Reading Comprehension

Read for some people is a tedious job, because they consider that reading just waste of their spare time, though from reading we can obtain various information and technology. In addition, by reading helps the brain to work optimally. In order to read more fun and can be read quickly, here are some reviews on how to read quickly.

Definition of Reading :
The definition in linguistics to explain that reading is a process of re-encoding and decoding process. These aspects relate written words to the meaning of spoken language. This includes changing the text or mold into a meaningful sound.
Reading is a process that is carried and used by readers who want to get the message presented by the author through the words of the written language .. A process that requires the reader to understand the written word group is a unified and visible in a glance, and the meanings of words that can be known precisely. If this can be met then the message is explicit and the implicit can be understood, so that the process of reading has been performing well.
Someone who was reading meant he was performing an activity in the form of communicating with yourself through written symbols. Meaning does not lie in not reading the written material, but also lies in the reader's mind itself. Thus the meaning of the reading can vary depending on the reader and the different experiences he had at the time to read and used to interpret the written words.

A good reader is someone who can take feedback on the language (an idea, stye, and maturity of the author) and a decent sense of speed. Good reading ability is very important in a reading.

To develop and improve skills needed in reading are:
  • It can help students to enrich their vocabulary by introducing words synonyms, antonyms, supplement, and explain the meaning of a word abstract using the local language or their native language.
  • Can help students to understand the meaning of the word structures, sentence and accompanied by the necessary training.
  • Can increase the speed of reading the students by asking them to read to himself, avoiding the lip movement, and explain the purpose of reading.

Someone who can understand a reading or discourse, will find the form of schemata that provide an adequate proposal of a reading. A reading comprehension process is to find the configuration schemata that offer an adequate description of a reading. Until now the concept of the scheme is the way to the most promising from the point of discourse in general. Because schemata are part of the presentation of background knowledge, breadth of knowledge and experience of readers is one basis for the strong design makes use of the concept of the scheme.

Capabilities needed in reading comprehension include:
• understand the vocabulary used in common language and can deduce its meaning in context.
• understand the forms of syntactic and morphological features found in reading written.
• can draw conclusions and a valid response of the material read.

Based on the above statement then the ability to read is how someone can understand very well what that message was conveyed in the passage, so that the information may be disclosed again absorbed properly, either orally or in writing.

Core part of speed reading is how you read a few words together and move your eyes to catch the words quickly. Imagine the analogy of a computer that has a super fast processor. This is your brain. And the speed of your eyes in seeing likened verbatim data sender channel that will determine whether the processor speed is fully utilized or are left in the idle condition because there is no data to be processed.

Most people read word by word It will slow read speed. You have to practice to be read per block words

In a quick reading of fixation / scan the eye at the widening So could read several words at once.

By reading the block of words, reading time, would be more concise. 'In a fast reader' reads one can see, then 'fixation widened' is also read with a single look. So also with 'So that could be read' and 'a few words at a time', only read once saw.
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Cigarette Museum in Kudus

The Museum had been launched and opened in 1906 was the brainchild of the governor of Central Java at that time, H. Supardjo Roestam in order to save and presents a collection of objects associated with the development of clove cigarette company in Kudus city.
It is Located in the village of Getas Pejaten No. 155, Kecamatan Jati, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, the Museum which stands on an area of 2 hectares is quite beautiful and majestic. Interior Museum is filled with statues and a variety of cigarette making equipment. The statues are slick and other ornaments of fruit works of selected artists from Kudus City can also be seen in this museum.

Until recently, the Museum Kretek cigarettes are the largest museums in Indonesia. To commemorate the great figure who had been instrumental in the cigarette industry in Kudus, museum managers perpetuating their figures through the paintings on display at the museum wall.
Inside the Museum Kretek is stored various equipment and machinery manufacture traditional clove cigarettes and cigarette smoking klobot and means of promotion at the time. In general, there are five large collection of cigarette production equipment at this museum: a collection of mill clove (clove glondong chopper tool), a collection of rolling tobacco (tobacco analyst tools), a collection krondo (a tool to separate the tobacco stems are rough and smooth), and collections tobacco chopper tools.
In addition visitors can also view photos of the track documentation and history of the Holy cigarettes can also be observed dioramas depicting the production process both traditional (by hand without tools and the production of hand cigarette rollers that produce cigarettes and cigarette klobot) and cigarette production process filter with modern machinery.
Also on the left side a little to the front of the museum was established traditional house of Kudus, though not as good and complete as Kudus traditional house owned dozens of residents. And now this Museums clove is also equipped with a playground for children.
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Kudus Minaret

Kudus is one of district in Central Java province, although it is small town but has many tourism objects, both natural attractions and religion tourism. In Kudus, there are natural attractions like MOnthel waterfalls in Colo Area , where the temperature is very cool because there lies on the mountain region and There is also a park that is called "Taman Krida" In Wergu Area. Beside that there are some museums like Cigarette museum and archaeological museum in Pati Ayam. There was also the religious tourism. This is because Kudus has two Wali who spread Islam in Kudus, they are Sunan Kudus and Sunan Muria, so many people doing the Pilgrimage to the tomb of those Sunans. One of the Sunan who his tomb located in the area of Minaret, he is Sunan Kudus.

Kudus Minaret is an old building made of red brick-shaped tower that is the result of acculturation of the Hindu-Javanese culture and Islam. The minaret is not a Hindu temple but a former building of the tower which was built in the days of status as guardian / the transition period from the end of the Majapahit Kingdom era to switch to the Islamic Kingdom of Demak.
The construction and architectural style of the minaret is similar to the temples of East Java, the Majapahit era until such Singosari temple towers resembling Jago Kulkul in Bali. Kudus Minaret became the symbol "tolerant Islam" which means Sunan Kudus disseminate Islam in Kudus by respecting the Hindu-Javanese who embraced the local community. Kudus Minaret is a tower that used to put a drum and used to inform the public about prayer time.
When the minaret was built?
It is estimated that the minaret is derived from 16th century, was built by Sheikh Ja'far Shodiq (Sunan Kudus, one of Wali Songo). On the roof of the tower mast there is a candrasengkala which reads "Gapura rusak ewahing jagad". According to Prof. DR RM Soetjipto Wirjosoepano, candrasengkala shows Gapuro (6), Rusak (0), Ewah (6) and Jagad (1) which in the Javanesse language is read from the back so that a meaningful 1609. Kudus Minaret was built in 1609 or 1685 AD Java.
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Tuesday, August 24, 2010

The degrees of comparison

In English grammar the degree of comparison of an adjective or adverb that describes the relational value of one thing with something in another clause of a sentence. An adjective may simply describe a quality, (the positive); it may compare the quality with that of another of its kind (comparative degree); and it may compare the quality with many or all others (superlative degree). In other languages it may describe a very large degree of a particular quality (in Semitic linguistics, called an elative).

The degree of comparison may be expressed morphologically, or syntactically. In English, for example, most monosyllabic and some disyllabic adjectives have morphological degrees of comparison: green (positive), greener (comparative), greenest (superlative); pretty, prettier, prettiest; while most polysyllabic adjectives use syntax: complex, more complex, most complex.
  1. The positive degree is the most basic form of the adjective, positive because it does not relate to any superior or inferior qualities of other things in speech.
  2. The comparative degree denotes a greater amount of a quality relative to something else. The phrase “Anna is taller than her father” means that Anna's degree of tallness is greater than her father's degree of tallness.
  3. The superlative degree denotes the most, the largest, etc., by which it differs from other things.

Comparison Rate
Quantitative adjective much and little, and many numbers of adjectives and Few, had the highest

Comparison Rate

Quantitative adjective much and little, and many numbers of adjectives and Few, had the highest

comparison (comparison degrees).

The degrees of comparison (comparison level) accounted for three levels, namely:
1. The positive degree (ordinary level)
2. The comparative (more level / ratio)
3. The superlative (lowest level)

1) adjective consisting of one syllable and some disyllabic adjectives can be formed comparative by adding er or r, and the superlative by adding-est or-st.

a) If a positive ending in two consonants or in a single consonant preceded by two vowels, add er and est







b) If the positive end in a dead letter dead letter and was preceded by a short vowel, final consonant doubled and then add er and est


big = large
wet = wet
hot = hot


Bigger = more
Wetter = wetter
Hotter = more heat


biggest = largest
= wettest wettest
hottest = hottest

c) If the positive end of the letter e, just add r and st


nice = good
fine = fine
wise = sage


be better nicer =
finer = better
wiser wiser =


nicest = best
finest = best
wisest wisest =

d) If the positive end of the letter y, and y is preceded by a consonant, y changed to I, then add er and est


wry = italic
Dry = dry
happy = happy


wrier = more oblique
drier drier =
happier = more happy


wriest = most crooked
= driest driest
happiest = terbahagia

e) If y is preceded by a vowel, y is not changed to i, but immediately added r and est


gay = gay
coy = shy
gray = overcast


gayer = more cheerful
coyer = more timid
greyer = more cloudy


gayest = teriang
coyest = terpemalu
greyest = termendung

f) The adjective consists of two syllables (two syllables) which end Some, ow, le, er, add er and est







2) The adjective of two syllables - two syllables (which sound pressure falls on the initial syllable) or more, added more to form and the most for superlatives comperatives


= famous famous
useful = useful
beautiful = beautiful


more famous
more useful
more beautiful


Most Famous
most useful
most beautiful

3) Some adjectives formed with an irregular manner (irregular) for comparatives and superlatives






foremost, first worst
nighest, next

Note 1:

a) Former = the first / last; the first one (between two objects).

Example: I prefer the former fabric. I prefer the first fabric

Of the two methods I prefer the former. Between the two methods that I prefer the first

b) Later = the latter

Example: I Will take the later plane. I would like to fly aboard the latter

c) the Latter = the latter / last (in between two objects)

Example: I Will Take The Latter book. I want to buy the last book (in between the two books)

d) Free = the latter / latter until now

Example: What is the latest news of the war? how is the latest news (last) war?

e) Last = last (most recent / efflux)

Example: This is our last opportunity. This is our last chance

Z is the last letter of the alphabet. Z is the last letter of the alphabet


Later means that later or more slowly, pointing to the time

Example: She Came to school later than I. He came to school more slowly than I

Latter refers to the second sequence between two things or things just mentioned

Example: Alexandria and Cairo are large cities; the Latter has a population of over a million.

Alexandria and Cairo is a big city; the latter (ie Cairo) has a population of more than one million people

Latest means the last until now, while the last means the most recent or


If we say:

Did you read Mr. Green's latest book? if you read the last book / latest Mr. Green?

This means that Mr. Green may go up again another book.

If we say:

Did you read Mr. Green's last book? if you read the last book Mr. Green?

This means that Mr. Green does not or will not write another book after book

had intended.

Note 2:

a) The Elder also comperative from the old form. Note the difference in the use of elders and older.

Example: John is my elder brother. John is my brother

John is older than Lisa. John is older than Lisa

b) Eldest also superlative form of old. Note the difference in usage eldest and oldest:

She is my eldest daughter. He is the eldest daughter

That is the oldest hotel in the city. That's the oldest hotel in town


Elder and eldest are used on people, and most often used on people in relationships

kinship. While the older and the oldest is used to express age or older or oldest of any people or objects.

4) There are six words adverbs (adverb) in the form of positive degrees, but the adjectives (adj) in the form of comparative and supelative






innermost, inmost
uttermost, utmost

5) The words of certain properties can not be compared

perfect = perfect
unique = unique
= highest supreme
preferable = better
Natural = natural
right = true
wrong = wrong


POSITIVE Degree (positive rate) is used to indicate that something is the same level. The comparison to something that used the same level as ... as.

Example: Ali is 1.6 meters and 1.6 meters Anwar Is Also.

U.S. is the U.S. Tall Ali Anwar.

This book cost about Rp. 2000, -. That book costs Rp. 2000, -

This book is one the U.S. That Expensive U.S.

Negative form of this comparison are as follows:

Example: Jakarta is not U.S. U.S. WARM Surabaya.


dc + + dc positive

no less than + positive +

+ more + positive note than


This girl is as clever as that '. The daughter is as clever girl

This girl is no less clever than that '. This same daughter with the girl's clever

That girl is not more clever than this. The girl was not more clever than this girl

(Meaning the girl and this girl just smart)

B. Comparative degree is used when two people or things are not the same be said in terms of a particular trait, one more than others. Level of comparison expressed by using the "-er" if that adjective has only one syllable (one Syllable) and in adding the word "than."

Example: Handi is Taller than Anton

A train is faster than a bus

If the adjective ends in le, r, ow, y, then add "-er". If the adjective ends with "y", then changed to "IER."

Example: This problem is Simpler than We Had the one yesterday.

The street in front of my house is narrower than this one.

Comparative degree that use more than one syllable (two or more syllables) used "more." Tribe said he meant beautiful = beau-ti-ful (three syllables); expensive = ex-pen-sive (three syllables), useful = use-ful (two syllables)

Example: TV programs are more interesting than the radio program.

My trousers are more expensive than yours.


comparative + than


Lisa is taller than her sisters. Lisa taller than his sister

Jakarta is Bigger than Singapore. Jakarta, Surabaya is greater than others


Rules untukk two syllables (two syllabels) is more complicated. Some comparative and superlative adjective formed with-er,-est., Some with more, most, others may do both.

Two-Syllable adjectives with-er,-est

1. Adjective ending in-y preceded by a consonant

Example: pretty - prettier, dirty - dirtier, noisy - noisier, happy - happier, unhappy - unhappier

2. Adjective ending in-ple,-ble, and usually-TLE,-dle

Example: Simple - Simpler, noble - nobler, humble - humbler, Subtle - subtler, idle - idler

Two-Syllable adjective with more, most

1. Most of the derivative adjective ending suffix:-OUs,-ish,-ful,-ing,-ed, etc.

Example: more famous, more useful, more childish, more interesting, more Tired

2. Most of the adjective ending in-ct,-nt,-st

Example: more exact, more recent, more honest, more urgent

Two-Syllable adjective with-er,-est or more, most (of the form-er,-est less formal)

1. Adjective ending in-er: cleverer, tenderer, bitterer

2. Adjective ending in-ow: narrower, shallower, mellower

3. Adjective ending in-Some: hansomer, wholesomer, lonesomer

4. Others: an emphasis on first syllable: pleasanter, crueler, quieter, stupider

Emphasis on the second syllable: politer, profounder, remoter, obscurer, sincerer, severer, securer

C. SUPERLATIVE Degree (superlative degree), ie when a person or an object is said to exceed or surpass all other persons or objects that the same sort of thing, we use the superlative degree with the ... of.

When an adjective consisting of one or two syllables, is used by adding "est."

Example: The Wisma Nusantara Building is the tallest building in Jakarta.

An elephant is The Biggest animal nowadays.

When the adjective ends with "y", then the superlative level changes to "iest."

Example: Today is THE happiest day for me. It's my birthday.

I do not know Which is THE heaviest metal.

The adjective is more than two syllables using the "Most."
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Global warming is happening lately resulted in various changes in extreme weather. Sometimes it got very hot but suddenly became very cold. This can lead to changes in resilience of the human body.
Very drastic changes that can lead to various diseases such as Influenza or fever. But weather like this body more susceptible to influenza illness.
What exactly is influenza disease?
The flu is a contagious illness that caused by viruses, and it may sometimes even lead to death. The flu usually starts suddenly and may include these symptoms: Fever (usually high), headache, cough, sorethroat, runny or stuffy nose, and muscle aches; diarrhea and vomitting can also occur.

There are things yoou can do to prevent the flu. First, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue every time you snezze. Do not forget to throw the tissue away after yoou use it. Second, frequently wash your hands with soap, especially after you cough or snezze. Third, try not to touch your nose, eyes, or mouth. Germs are usually spread this way. Fourth, stay away from people if possible. When you get the flu, stay at home. Try to get a rest on your bed.
So, what should you do if you get the flu? Eat chicken soup that you like! Chicken soup has been proven to relieve some of the symptoms related with the flu. For a sore throat, drink either hot fluids or try cool stuff, like popsicles or ice cream. Finally, get some rest. Wait a day after your temperature is normal before going back to do your activities.
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Dengue Fever

Extremely season as it is now vulnerable to various diseases such as coughs, colds, flu and even deadly diseases such as dengue fever. For that we should be able to maintain a healthy body and environment around us. One of dengue fever caused could become an epidemic disease caused by the environment are not good so the larva of mosquitoes can breed well.
One symptom of dengue fever which is initiated from a hot body temperature and influenza, cough and sometimes even vomiting. Like symptoms are almost the same as symptoms of typhoid disease or gastritis.

As happened on my friend's son, at first they thought it was just like the common cold diseases suffered by young children in general. But his temperature heat can not go down until a few days so they decided to check the blood to determine the type illness. At the first check did not reveal any disease dengue fever. But body temperature is still hot and even diarrhea. In the end they decided again to check the blood of the second. In the second test was only discovered the existence of dengue fever. But it was too late, because the disease was most severe. Eventually his son could not helped and died.
Looking at these experiences, we should be more alert to weather changes that happened lately, so the incident will not recur.
Here, I try to explain what actually arriving fever :
What is dengue fever?
Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes. It is an acute illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with symptoms such as headache, fever, exhaustion, severe muscle and joint pain, swollen glands (lymphadenopathy), and rash. The presence (the "dengue triad") of fever, rash, and headache (and other pains) is particularly characteristic of dengue. Other signs of dengue fever include bleeding gums, severe pain behind the eyes, and red palms and soles.
Dengue (pronounced DENG-gay) strikes people with low levels of immunity. Because it is caused by one of four serotypes of virus, it is possible to get dengue fever multiple times. However, an attack of dengue produces immunity for a lifetime to that particular serotype to which the patient was exposed.
Dengue goes by other names, including "breakbone" or "dandy fever." Victims of dengue often have contortions due to the intense joint and muscle pain, hence the name breakbone fever. Slaves in the West Indies who contracted dengue were said to have dandy fever because of their postures and gait.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a more severe form of the viral illness. Manifestations include headache, fever, rash, and evidence of hemorrhage in the body. Petechiae (small red or purple blisters under the skin), bleeding in the nose or gums, black stools, or easy bruising are all possible signs of hemorrhage. This form of dengue fever can be life-threatening and can progress to the most severe form of the illness, dengue shock syndrome.
What are dengue fever symptoms and signs?
After being bitten by a mosquito carrying the virus, the incubation period ranges from three to 15 (usually five to eight) days before the signs and symptoms of dengue appear. Dengue starts with chills, headache, pain upon moving the eyes, and low backache. Painful aching in the legs and joints occurs during the first hours of illness. The temperature rises quickly as high as 104 F (40 C), with relative low heart rate (bradycardia) and low blood pressure (hypotension). The eyes become reddened. A flushing or pale pink rash comes over the face and then disappears. The glands (lymph nodes) in the neck and groin are often swollen.
Fever and other signs of dengue last for two to four days, followed by a rapid drop in body temperature (defervescence) with profuse sweating. This precedes a period with normal temperature and a sense of well-being that lasts about a day. A second rapid rise in temperature follows. A characteristic rash appears along with the fever and spreads from the extremities to cover the entire body except the face. The palms and soles may be bright red and swollen.
What is the treatment for dengue fever?
Because dengue fever is caused by a virus, there is no specific medicine or antibiotic to treat it. For typical dengue, the treatment is purely concerned with relief of the symptoms (symptomatic). Rest and fluid intake for adequate hydration is important. Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should only be taken under a doctor's supervision because of the possibility of worsening hemorrhagic complications. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and codeine may be given for severe headache and for the joint and muscle pain (myalgia).
How can dengue fever be prevented?
The transmission of the virus to mosquitoes must be interrupted to prevent the illness. To this end, patients are kept under mosquito netting until the second bout of fever is over and they are no longer contagious.
The prevention of dengue requires control or eradication of the mosquitoes carrying the virus that causes dengue. In nations plagued by dengue fever, people are urged to empty stagnant water from old tires, trash cans, and flower pots. Governmental initiatives to decrease mosquitoes also help to keep the disease in check but have been poorly effective.
To prevent mosquito bites, wear long pants and long sleeves. For personal protection, use mosquito repellant sprays that contain DEET when visiting places where dengue is endemic. Limiting exposure to mosquitoes by avoiding standing water and staying indoors two hours after sunrise and before sunset will help. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a daytime biter with peak periods of biting around sunrise and sunset. It may bite at any time of the day and is often hidden inside homes or other dwellings, especially in urban areas.
There is currently no vaccine available for dengue fever. There is a vaccine undergoing clinical trials, but it is too early to tell if it will be safe or effective. Early results of clinical trials show that a vaccine may be available by 2012.
Where can people get more information on dengue fever?
"Dengue," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention"
(Taken from:
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Saturday, August 21, 2010

English Expression


Introduce yourself.
To introduce self-expression, among others:
- I would like to Introduce my self, my name's ...
- May I Introduce my self?
- Let me Introduce my self. my name ...
- I want to Introduce my self. my name ...

Introducing others.
This expression is used to introduce people to each other:
- I would like you to meet .... (Name that wants to be introduced)
- This is my friend, boss, manager ... (name that wants to be introduced)
- Have you met ... (name that wants to be introduced)
- May I Introduce you to ... (name that wants to be introduced)
- Let me Introduce you to ... (name that wants to be introduced)
- I want to Introduce you ... (name that wants to be introduced)

The first friendly greeting used is "How do you do" then continued with; It's nice to see you, I am glad to meet you, usually rewarded with the same phrase, after the second meeting of the phrase was not used again instead used:

Greetings Response
- How are you I am fine thanks, How about you guys
- How is life? Everything is OK
- How is everything going on? Not so bad / not so good / So so.


Is how to say thank you in English usually uses the word as follows:

The phrase Response
- Thank you
- Thank you very much
- Thanks

- Thank you for Helping me
- Thank you for your kindness

- I'm Grateful for your help - Thank you / You're welcome!
- You're welcome!
- That's all right

- Not at all
- Do not Mention it.
- Any time

C. Asking for Help (Ask for help / assistance)

To request our assistance may use the expression - the expression as follows:
- Would you guys + V1 + Object (me) example: Would you help me?
- Could you + V1 + Object (me) Could you help me?
- Do you mind + V ing + Object (me) Do you mind Helping me?
- Would you mind + V ing + Object (me) Would you mind Helping me?

Expression in response to receiving the usual: OK, Certainly, Of course, while sure to reject the common use I am sorry. While for the use of the phrase Do / would you mind if received; Not at all, off course not, to refuse to use; yes, I am sorry.

D. Offering HELP.

Expressions to offer assistance are as follows;
- May I help you
- Can I help you
- What Can I help you
- What Can I do for you - How Can I assist you
- How Can I help you
- Let me help you
- Do you want me to help you
Basically asking or offering help is the same, we just need to change the subject or object position of the sentence, except in the pattern of using Do / Would you mind ...
Note the changes:

Offering Help (offering help) Asking for help (for help)

® Could I help you?
® Would you like me to help you
® Could you help me?
® Would you like to help me

E. SOME Things Offering
To offer something in English we use the common expression patterns, "would you like ..., Would you care for ...?, Why do not you have ...?, How about having ...? May I offer you ...?

Offering offering Response / feedback

Would you like Some drinks / food?
 Would you care for coffee?
Why do not you have Some mint tea?
 How about having fun?
 Yes, please
 No, thank I do not drink coffee
 Thank you, I'd love to
 Oh, no

F. Apologizing

Here is the expression - the expression to apologize in brief;

Response expression / response
® I am very sorry
® I am very sorry
® Please forgive me
® I am sorry for coming late
® I apologize for .... It's OK / that's all right

Not at all
No problem
Not at all
It does not matter.
If someone get angry and refused to forgive, they usually uses the phrase: "So you Should be!"

G. FOR Asking permission.

In daily interactions - sometimes the day we are faced with a situation where we have to apply for permission to do something; following phrase - used the following response unkapan

Asking for permission accepting Refusing

 Can I + V1: Can I go home?
 May I + V1: May I wash my hands?
 Could I + V1: Could I use it sir?
 you mind If I Dou ...
 I wonder if I can / Could + V1

Go a head
 Not at all
By all means
Sorry but
Did you guys I'd rather
 I'm afraid you can not
 Yes!
 I am sorry you can not


In daily interactions - the day sometimes we'll invite / invite someone to attend / do something following expressions used in the invitation;
Refusing accepting Invitation
Let's smoke
 I would like to invite you to attend my party
 Would you care for Joining my birthday party?

Let's be happy Marshall
We All right
Of course

All right
No, thanks
I'd love to but I can not
I'm sorry, I have Some Things To Do

I. Asking INTERNATIONAL Giving Opinions

Expression - phrases used for advice and give suggestions are as follows follows the pattern of the sentence: "Let's + V1 / be + Ks", "Why do not We ...?", "" Would you care for ...? "," I would like to invite you to ... "," Would you like to + V1. "

Asking for opinions Giving opinions

 What do you think of / about ...
 What is your opinion for / about ...
 What is your view on ...
 What do you say about ...
 I think that ...
 I believe that ...
 I feel that ...
 In my opinion ...
 I do not really know about ...
 How about ....
 What about ....
For the last two regular expression followed by a gerund (V ing) or just followed Noun
Example: "What about going home? "What about Coca Cola?"
"How about finishing it early? "" How about hamburgers? "


In giving advice we sometimes use different phrases have the same purpose. Nevertheless, respectively - each have a different pattern. Here's how to give the following advice responses / response;

Advice / Suggestions accepting Refusing

 Why do not you + V 1
 You need to + V1
 You Should + V1
 It's best to + V 1
 You Had better not + V1
 It would be a good idea to + V1
 You ought to + V1
 Yes, I Will
 Yes May be I Should
 Yes I suppose I Should
 Yes I guess I Should
May be
 I gues not
 OK
 I do not think so
 I guess not
 O no!
 Oh no!


Agree Disagree
 I agree with you
 I think so
It is certainly
 That's I want to say
 I am with you
 I am on your side
That idea I buy
 I disagree with you
I would not say That
 I do not think so
EXACTLY  notes
 I can not say so
On contrary 
 I do not buy That Idea

Functional Skills
For Specific purposes

In this chapter we will learn some of expression - an expression commonly used in the case - certain things associated with working unia. Skills are very useful in dealing with the world of work in the current global era, the phrase - the phrase has a broad meaning. Watch and learn.

A. Reservation
The reservation service we will study the expression used in Hotel, Restaurant and bureaus are mentioned bverikut perjalanan.Ungkapan these:

1. Hotel Room Booking Service

Guess (Guest) Receptionist (reception)
There's Room Full Room
 I'd like to book a room for Tomorrow

 I'd like to reserve a single room
 Is there any rooms available tonight?
 Could you tell me the night rate is for a single room?  OK, sir, how long you stay will from

 What sort rooms do you need sir / madam?
 $ .140 a night sir / madam
 May I know Whom is it for?
 I am sorry sir We are fully booked
 Would you like me to book a room in another hotel for you sir / madam?

For ordering options.
Receptionist (reception) Guess (Guest)
 Do you have any special preference?
 Beach view please
 I want to have the room with mountain view

2. Restaurant Booking Service in
Guess (Guest) Receptionist (reception)
There was an empty table table Fully
 I'd like to book a table for tonight?

 I'd like to reserve tables
 Is there any tables available tonight?
 OK, sir, how many people will from come to your dinner?
 Do you need an extra table / toast?
 I am sorry sir We are fully booked
 Would you like me to book a table in another restaurant for you sir / madam?

For ordering options.
Receptionist (reception) Guess (Guest)
 Do you have any special preference?
 I want the table near the pool

3. Travel ticket reservation services / theater
Customer (Customer) Reservation Officer (booking officer)
Available Not available
 I'd like to book a plane ticket for Padang?

 I'd like to reserve two seats for two
 Is there any seats available tonight?
 OK, sir, Pls Will you leave for Padang.
 Which row do you like to seat?
 I am sorry sir We are fully booked, How about Tomorrow?

For ordering options.
Receptionist (reception) Guess (Guest)
 Do you have any special preference?
 I want the seat near the window (train, bus, plane)
 On the first row / BALCON (theater)

B. Telephone Handling.

Do you still remember:

How the secretary greets the caller?
What the caller says to inform his / her purpose?
What the secretary says to inform That the one the caller wants to speak to is not in?

To make a call (Call)

 Greetings (Good morning / afternoon / evening).
 May I speak to ..., please?
 I'm ... (your name) from ... (your company's name)
 I'm calling about ... (your purpose)
 Could you put me through to Mr. / Mrs. ...?

To receive a call (the call)

 Greetings (Good morning / afternoon / evening) + name of your company.
 Can I help you? May I help you?
 Who's calling, please? Who's speaking, please?
 May I have your name, please? Could I have your number?
 Hold on, please. Just a moment, please.
 I'm sorry. The line is engaged. Sorry, Sir / Ma 'am. The line is busy.
 I'll put you through to Mr. / Mrs. ...
 Do you want to hold on, or call again later?
 Can I take your message?
 Could you speak up, please? It's a terrible connection.

Leaving a message (leave message)

The caller (caller)
 Could you take a message for me?
 Could you please take a message?
 May I leave a message?

The person answers the phone will from the WHO say (telephone receiver)
 Would you leave a message
 May I take a message

D. Confirming Arrangements.

In the business world to cancel the agreement is to be avoided, but if circumstances force us to cancel it then we are biased using the following expression:

1. I regret to tell you That I have to cancel our meeting
2. I am sorry That I Will have to cancel my business trip Because of our company's condition.
3. I am sorry That I Will have to cancel my arrangements
4. We Could write a provisional date in our diaries?
5. I'm sorry to upset your plan like this.
6. I'm sorry the plan is Cancelled
7. Unexpected Something Happened and I can not make it
8. We'll have to delay the meeting
9. I can not make Them Decide exactly what they want are going to do
10. I need to contact my lawyer.

C. Arrangements canceling

The phrase is used to ensure the agreement is as follows:
1. I would like to confirm my ... ..
2. I would like to confirm about taking ...
3. I would like to confirm about our arrangements

D. AN Appointment Making (Making agreements business meeting)

What do you say Pls help you get through to the Person You Want to speak to and fix a
meeting? Here Are Some expressions That you find in the above conversation and are usually
Used in making an appointment.

Suggesting a time to meet
Responding to the suggestion
 Can / Shall We fix / arrange / manage an appointment / a meeting?
 Would it be useful to meet up soon
�� 'll (just) to check my diary.
 How about Monday?
 Would Wednesday be suitable?
 Would Thursday suit you?
 Shall We say on Friday? That's fine
��  I can not / will not be Able to make Monday.
��  I've got to ...
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