Thursday, September 2, 2010


Obesity is excess weight as a result of excessive accumulation of body fat.
Everyone needs some body fat to store energy as heat insulation, shock absorber and other functions. On average women have more body fat than men [citation needed]. Normal comparison between body fat weight is approximately 25-30% in women and 18-23% in men. Women with more body fat than 30% body fat and men with more than 25% are considered obese.
Someone who has a weight 20% higher than the midpoint of the range of normal weight is considered obese.

Obesity is classified into three groups:

* Obesity mild: 20-40% overweight
* Obesity is: 41-100% overweight
* Obesity weight: excess weight> 100% (weight Obesity is found as much as 5% of the people who are obese).

Attention not only to the amount of fat is dumped, but also to the location of body fat storage. The pattern of distribution of body fat in men and women tend to differ. Women tend to accumulate fat in the hips and buttocks, thus giving the picture such as a pear. While the men usually accumulate fat around the abdomen, thus giving the picture such as apples. But it is not something absolute, sometimes in some men looked like a pear and some women look like apples, especially after menopause.
Someone buried a lot of fat in the abdomen may be more prone to various health problems associated with obesity. They have a higher risk. Pear picture is better than the picture of the apple.
To distinguish the two images, we have found a way to determine whether a person is shaped like an apple or pear, namely by calculating the ratio of waist to hips. Waist was measured at the narrowest point, while the hip was measured at the widest point; and waist size divided by hip size. A woman with a waist size of 87.5 cm and 115 cm hip size, waist-hip ratio of 0.76. Women with a ratio of waist: hip more than 0.8 or men with waist: hip more than one, say an apple-shaped.

Obesity Causes
Scientifically, obesity occurs from consuming more calories than needed by the body. Cause of the imbalance between calorie intake and burning is still unclear.
The occurrence of obesity involves several factors:

* Genetic factors. Obesity tends to run, thus might have a genetic cause. But family members not only share genes but also diet and lifestyle habits, which could push the occurrence of obesity. Often difficult to separate lifestyle factors with genetic factors. Recent research shows that the average genetic factors affecting 33% of body weight a person.
* Environmental factors. Gene is an important factor in many cases of obesity, but one's environment also play a significant role. This environment includes behavioral / lifestyle patterns (eg what to eat and how often a person ate and how its activity). A person certainly can not change their genetic pattern, but he can change the diet and activity.
* Psychological factors. What's in a person's mind can affect her eating habits. Many people reacted to his emotions by eating.

One form of emotional distress is a negative perception of self. This disruption is a serious problem for many young women who suffer from obesity, and can cause excessive awareness about kegemukannya and discomfort in social interactions.
There are two abnormal eating patterns that could be the cause of obesity is eating in a number of very much (binge) and eat at night (at night eating syndrome). Both diets are usually triggered by stress and disappointment. Binge similar to bulimia nervosa, in which a person ate in a number of very much, except that the binge this is not followed by spewing back what you've eaten. As a result a lot of calories consumed. In the syndrome, eating at night, is the reduction of appetite in the morning and followed by excessive eating, agitation and insomnia at night.

1. Health factors. Some illnesses can cause obesity, among others:

* Hypothyroidism
* Cushing's syndrome
* Prader-Willi Syndrome
* Several neurological disorders that can cause a person eats a lot

1. Drugs.

Certain drugs (eg steroids and some anti-depressants) can cause weight gain.

* Factor developments. Increasing the size or number of fat cells (or both) cause increasing amounts of fat stored in the body. Obese people, especially those who became obese in childhood, can have the fat cells up to five times more than people whose weight is normal. The number of fat cells can not be reduced, so weight loss can only be done by reducing the amount of fat within each cell.

* Physical activity. Lack of physical activity is probably one of the main causes of the increasing incidence of obesity in the middle of a prosperous society. People who are inactive need fewer calories. Someone who tend to consume foods rich in fat and not doing physical activity that is balanced, will be obese.

Symptoms of obesity

Excessive fat accumulation under the diaphragm and inside the chest wall may suppress the lungs, causing breathing problems and shortness of breath, although patients with only mild activity. Respiratory problems can occur during sleep and causes cessation of breathing for a while (sleep apneu), so at noon sufferers often feel sleepy.
Obesity can cause various orthopedic problems, including low back pain and aggravate osteoarthritis (especially in the area of the hip, knee and ankle). Sometimes also frequently found in skin disorders. A person who is obese has a body surface which is relatively more narrow than the weight, so body heat can not be disposed of in an efficient and more sweat. Often found in edema (swelling due to accumulation of fluid) in the leg and ankle.


Obesity is not only unpleasant to the eye but it is a terrible dilemma for health care. Obesity is directly harmful to one's health. Obesity increases the risk of some chronic diseases such as:

* Diabetes type 2 (arising in adolescence)
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Stroke
* Heart attack (myocardial infarction)
* Heart failure
* Cancer (certain types of cancer such as prostate cancer and colon cancer)
* Gall-bladder stones and bladder stones
* Gout and gout arthritis
* Osteoarthritis
* Sleep apneu (failure to breathe normally while asleep, have decreased levels of oxygen in the blood)
* Pickwickian syndrome (obesity accompanied by facial redness, underventilasi and drowsiness).

Measuring body fat

Not easy to measure a person's body fat. Following ways requires special equipment and conducted by trained personnel:

* Underwater weight, body weight was measured in water and then body fat is calculated based on the amount of water remaining.
* BOD POD is an egg-shaped space that has been computerized. Once a person has entered the BOD POD, the remaining amount of air used to measure body fat.
* Dexa (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), resembling bone skening. X-rays are used to determine the number and location of body fat.

Following two ways is more simple and not complicated:

* Duration of skin, skin fold thickness in several parts of the body measured by the term (a metal tool resembling a forceps).
* Bioelectric impedance analysis (analysis bioelektrik prisoners), the patient stands on a special scale and a number of harmless electrical current flowed through the body and then analyzed.

These examinations can give inaccurate results if not done by experts.


Restricted calorie intake and increasing physical activity is the most important component in weight control. Both these components are also important in maintaining weight after weight loss. Must be a change in physical activity patterns and begin to live healthier eating habits.
The first step in treating obese patients is estimating body fat and health risks by calculating BMI. Health risks associated with obesity will increase in line with the increasing number of BMI:

* Low risk: BMI <27>Obesity is a chronic condition (chronic). Obesity is often considered a temporary condition that can be resolved for several months with a strict diet. Weight control is a long term business. To be safe and effective, any weight-loss program should be directed to the long-term approach.


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