Monday, May 24, 2010


The learning process is a process in carrying out activities in achieving the goal of Education Curriculum Education.
Aim to deliver education to students in both behavior change intellectually, morally and socially in order to live independently as individuals and social beings.
To achieve these objectives, students interact with learning environment which is set by the teachers through the learning process.
In the learning process, it is very important we as educators know the variety of its Instructional Media Learning Model that will be used to support the achievement of learning success



Application of learning with contextual approach will greatly assist teachers in connecting the material with real world subjects and motivate students to establish the relationship between knowledge and application to their lives as members of society (Department of Education, 2002). Contextual approach is the most appropriate approach in learning. Contextual approach can also be used in various models of learning, one of which is learning model langsung. According to Kardi and M. Nur (Th. 2000), direct teaching model has several stages or phases, namely:
  1. Delivering the objectives and prepare students. In this phase, one teacher opened the lesson with a variety of ways such as storytelling, displays the phenomenon or do eksprimen. Motivating students with certain ways can arouse students' interest in learning. After the teacher explains the purpose of learning, giving some background information on the lesson and prepare students for learning.
  2. Provide materials, through demonstration or step by step eksprimen. In this phase, teachers explore the concepts and connect students with the correct concept.
  3. Guiding training. Students are busy learning activities, while teachers could provide assistance or guidance to students in need. Students are directed to their own understanding of new experiences based on early experience possessed by students.
  4. Check for understanding and giving feedback. In this phase the teacher to check whether students have successfully done a good job? Teachers can also give umpam counterexample to a material that has not been solved.
  5. Provide an opportunity for further training and how to apply them in real life.
Stages of the above seems obvious, that direct instruction is very good models for pupils who do not have a complete laboratory and quite efficient, because they do not need a special time to do the practicum. Students can perform activities of observation, making the analysis, formulate problems and make a conclusion in accordance with their findings. Direct instruction model with a contextual approach can reduce the misconceptions of students and can guide students in the formation of new concepts and connect with old concepts, so that between one concept and other concepts that are interconnected to form concept map.


Problem Based Learning is learning that characterized the submission of questions or problems, focusing on the connections between disciplines, authentic inquiry, collaboration and generate work and demonstration.

The main feature of problem-based learning include the submission of questions or problems, focusing on the connections between disciplines, authentic inquiry, collaboration and generate work and demonstration. Not a problem-based learning is designed for teachers mernbantu provide as much information to students.

Problem based learning to help students become independent and autonomous learners. With the guidance of a teacher who repeatedly pushed and directed them to ask questions, find a solution to real problems by themselves, students learn to solve the tasks themselves.

According to Ibrahim (2002:3-5) in problem-based learning there are five main stages, as follows:

Phase 1
Student orientation to the problem.
Teacher explains the purpose of learning, explaining the logistics required, motivating students engage in solving problems chosen.

Phase 2
Organize students to learn.
Teachers help students learn to define and organize tasks related to the problem.

Phase 3
Guide the investigation of individual or group.
Teachers encourage students to gather the appropriate information, conduct experiments to obtain an explanation and troubleshooting.

Phase 4
Develops and presents the results of the work.
Teachers help students to plan and prepare appropriate work such as reports, videos, models and help them share the duties with his friend.

Phase 5
Analyze and evaluate problem-solving process.
Teachers help students to do reflection or evaluation of their investigation and the processes they use.


According to Slavin learning cooperative learning is done in groups, students in a classroom used as small groups consisting of four to five people to understand the concept of which was facilitated by the teacher. Cooperative learning model is a model of learning by setting small groups by taking into account the diversity of members of the group as a forum for students to work together and solve problems through social interaction with peers, providing the opportunity for students to learn something well at the same time and she became a resource person for another friend. So Cooperative learning is an instructional model that prioritizes collaboration among students to achieve their learning goals. Cooperative learning model can be characterized by: 1) to complete their study material, students learn in cooperative groups, 2) a group formed by students who have high ability, medium and low, 3) if there are classes comprising students from some racial, ethnic, cultural sexes, then aligned to be in each group consisted of race, ethnicity, culture, different sexes, and 4) the award is more focused on group work than on individuals.

Cooperative learning model was developed to achieve at least three important learning goals. According to the Education Ministry's first goal of cooperative learning, such as improving academic results, with improved student performance in academic tasks. Students are better able to become a resource for students who are less fortunate, who have the same orientation and language. While the second goal, cooperative learning provides opportunities for students to receive her friends who have various learning differences in the background. Differences include differences in ethnicity, religion, academic ability, and social levels. The third important objective of cooperative learning is to develop the social skills of students. Social skills is, among others, sharing tasks, actively asking, respect other people's opinions, fishing friends to ask, would explain an idea or opinion, work in groups and so forth.

Competence on Cooperative learning:
1. Understanding Value / Concept
2. Ability apply concepts / problem solving
3. The ability to produce something together
4. Soft skills (Critical Thinking, Communicating, Cooperating)


Learning with Information Technology is a learning activity where in the delivery of teaching materials that are presented to students, teachers to use or apply a variety of instructional media devices. The media were very wide range of learning, whether in the form of media
print, media / visual aids or electronic media.

To design the subjects that would be conveyed through a multimedia learning, a teacher must prepare a Learning Plan and the necessary preparations. Based on the author's experience, the preparations that include:

1. Getting started:
  • Preparing the Learning Plan
  • Collect the necessary data, pictures or movies / slides (if possible any)
  • Setting up computer equipment (software required)
2. Making a presentation for learning.
  • Not all material will be taught be informed of all in the presentation. Art soul needed for a teacher in making learning design presentations.
  • Presentation material covers the main points only.
  • Inserting images, movies or sounds if needed.
  • We recommend a presentation made at the end of the questions or tasks for students.
3. Implementation:
  • Before the lesson begins the teacher to prepare the presentation. Presentation room can use a library or laboratory.
  • Setting up the necessary devices such as computers, LCD projector, screen projector, microphones and loudspeakers.
  • Implementation of learning.
  • Assessment (Post Test)

Media include print media, media display, media display, media experiments, OHP, and the combination, slide, film strip, film, VCD, instructional TV, internet, and so forth.
According to Wilbur Schramm instructional media differentiated into two kinds, namely big media and small media. Big media interpreted as a complex and expensive media, like TV, Movies, Computers, and the like. In accordance with the recommendations in GBPP then this module will provide a differentiated media nonelektronik media and electronic media.
Media nonelektronik frequently used in learning can include: print, media display, media display, media experiments. Next to the electronic media in teaching Physics, can be: OHP, OHP and combination, slide instructional program, the program strip film, instructional films, VCD, instructional television and the Internet.

Criteria Selecting Media:
1. Accuracy with Learning Objectives
2. Ease of Obtaining
3. Skilled teachers use
4. Appropriate levels of student thinking
5. Availability Time

Media types include:
1. Visual Media
  • Not projected (Photo, Graphics, Models, Reality)
  • Projected (OHP, Slide Projector, LCD Projector Opaque)
2. Media Audio and Video
3. Environment


Post a Comment